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The entlr tote i. preided .irt a drawbridge aUd prootoed by rifle fire thoMuh lehal.. It la las.t tl do.s od te ba.rracks. whd a modr the gldci., iot. the dtch. It will hbe oiid that the .der and i.mer galhs a. t i a iae. T. io .gate is preoed by rill. fire tIhr.d IOwphl.. A.adme drLw.bidg. uiide. par a de. lea g.Rly hink reoa. the en o te froo where ar sit.t m b.ranbd., as wll a d es for the ditch (aa.ra reo aids). Ot1r socee r, galroje., at theL to.o ot angls of the dib h na soad lhb .d n tots. lb oeaLr oig of tl psaw , d..erwy. l.ad o harre ad masd.es. TMe oolo rli o da fr a are raad by ifedo sba… er at at of the aa caoet. se and Aide..
MODERN FORTIFICATIONS AND THEIR ATTACK. DENIAL of po. i te eesc of all modern fortifetios “‘ Around eveO city or in oeey positi there are always a certain number of pohts which dominate the uroumdiag ommtny nad iorbM the pssge of an army until they ha.o been secured. On these points permanent works are erected, which rely primariy for thei security on te depth of ti ditches and not on t ae re-power from theik parapets One t .ie tait no hum…. b. g can hope to surdre is fall into a thity-foot ditch. T.eroa lies t 1te strength of t.e mtny worbs in England and our Oter.t pa.oeins ; for tie defence 1 ofur dockyards. Arna. ment have changeod aine these work. were laid out; but tex deep ditch and human Bea and blood rem-io in the same relatino to noe another a ever. II, thoh~ e key- points only were oocupied, ten the enemy, approaching ao a brood fat, could envelop each oe them with .n are of batteries chane sure, convergng on each work, would sgon disintegrate and dstroy noy exposed aromm meats within therm They cmuld so smother each place with hunting .hebf and orapnal bullets that no man could show hi bad above te parapets log enooug to tehi asn without bein hit. A army then could march throgh thei intevals ely. To doae teo. gap. with permana.t works woud be an econoami imposbity, set ft r the wealthlt nations. Hane reliamnc has to be placed en feld-works designed – adaa.ce, but only esecut4 when an at ack is amniment ; and behhd thee works paositu are .eectd from whor e hbavy artlery an Ight the a bttng bltere.. This conttes toe a. no tial dierence betweo the new and old kdolo of forte-dfance : . toe M onss, the beo.y gUa ware alway. manted had. the foro ; in the new one.,they t e rmoved outade and fought fro ptami.. wilh can be changed frm day to day. Only a few gno en dihappeoarhog mna. -gono y inho .rmod tah- h~a wthi the work., rhedy to pop up o meomts of crisi Whit .abaRy Ih the mm Ml Ih thoe ae o the forts, moblity i. the principal object sought o theb deolgn of toe hereedhe dufnoes, and this eaky r t a assid by choear oaewoys and roads, enaiing gum adl tors to be readily trandered. The maik oaol and nedhrw of the town Irnih the otam. nminctins fromn the centre outwards
We give here an illustration of a fort of the kind designed by the famous Belgian military engineer, General Brilmont, and typical of those so bravely defended by the Belgians at Lidge against the attacks of the Germans. No man, of course, ever designed an impregnable fort, or ever will. The strength of every such work must depend ltimately on the spirit of its arrison; and Brialmont, like all engineers, draw up his designs on the assumption that the men working the forts would give a good account of theselves. How well this assumption was justifed the recent events at Lifge amply proved. As shown above, these forts are provided with an elaborate system for repelling attempt to carry the
S works by aault, and for mating a counter-attack. Behind wire entanglements come fougasses, or land-mines-fired electrically from the forts. When these two obstacles have been nearly reached-covering-fire must cease, because the target will be masked by the advancing infantry. Then the disappearing guns pop up from the forts; the electric light is turned full upon the Senemy, who, blinded by the beam, is prevented from seeing the counter-attacking columns, which should be lying in wait for this opportunity amongst the trenches marked L and M in the picture. On paper, this counter-attack can never faiL In practice, however, these theoretical arrangements do not always work out.
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