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W BE have now entered the sixth month of this dreadful war, and it really looks as if it were only beginning. The Franco-German War, which commenced on the same day of the year–Aug. 4 – was practically over by this time, and only negotia- tions for an armistice and peace conditions remained. That w,,l show the difference between the task under- taken by Germany then and now. Her leading journal, inspired by the Wilhelmstrasse, frankly speaks of the ” giga: tic work still to do.” and of ” the superiority of two to one ” against which she and her ally are contending. In no quarter are the enemy allies making pro- gress. .)n the contrary, their advance has every- where lnen arrested, and in some quarters their mnoved nt is to the rear. Austria’s ” punitive expedi- tiun ” against Serbia has been altogether bundled out of that heroic little kingdom of peasants and

pig-lrer ters. In a I the Kaiser – utterances there is now a forced, falsetto note as of the proverbial boy who whistled his nocturnal way :rough a village church-yard to keep his spirits up. But the high- falutin’ element is still there. ” We stand on hos- tile soil, said his Hunnish Majesty to his Head- quarters troops at Christ- mas, ‘ the point of our sword turned to the enemn,, our heart turned to God. VWe say, a. once the Great Elector said, ‘ To the dust with all the enemies of Germany i ‘ ” But, mean- while, there is only the mud of Slanders and of Poland for the Kaiser’s desperate legions to stick in. Again : ” We are at- tacked, we defend our- selves ‘–a fine thing for a monarch to say who was the first to bring about this dreadful world-war by drawing the sword on Russia and France. ” Much has come to pass in the old year,” said the Kaiser in his New Year address to his forces, ” but the enemies are still firmly kept low. Always fresh forces are rolling up agai ist our army and the army of our faith- ful allies, but their numbers do not frighten us.” Among those fresh forces referred to by the barbarous despoiler and ravager of Bel- gium are eighteen British army corps, or two more than those which form the fighting strength of Aus- tria-Hu ngary-though the former, of course, will not

De Dacaco tor some time by a corresponding array of reserves to make good the wastage of war. But such is the new ordre de bataille as devised by Lord Kitch- ener: six armies, each consisting of three army corps (but whether of two or three divisions is not yet clear), to be commanded respectively by Sir Douglas Haig, Sir H. Smith-Dorrien, Sir Archibald Hunter, Sir Ian Hamilton, Sir Leslie Rundle, and Sir Bruce Hamilton, our foremost fighting Generals. Counting an army corps as 40,000 men of all arms, this reconstitution of our combatant strength should give us a field force of close on 800o,ooo men, as compared with the 70,000 to 80,ooo with which we first took the field-and this apart from our Indian and Dominion contingents, who do not seem to be included in the estimate. Anyhow, this reconstitution of our land-forces- which now raises us to the rank of first-rate military, as well as naval Power-was a very good way of beginning the New Year, though, per contra, alas I this year had only been about tl ;e hours’ old when

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we were afflicted with another of those naval disasters of which the nation has had to deplore so many already ; while furnishing our foes with further cause for Schadenfrcude, or malicious joy. There was more ml-tery aboeut the destructilon of the 13cBulcarlk, while lying at anchor in the Mcdway, than about the sinking oft her sister-ship, the Formidable, when steaming down the Channel in a heavy gale off the coast of Dorset or Devon. From the fact that the battle-ship required two external explosions to send it to the bottom it was inferred by some critics that these must have ht’en caused by a couple ot German torpedoes. But others –and, perhaps, with more reason–inclined tio the view that, consldering the impossibility almost of a submarine being able to operate inl thie d irknless inl such a tremendous sea, it swacs, ion the ywhole, cimore probable that the doomed war-ship had impinged

GEn. ~ R Dout LA, IAIG. G EN, SIR HOPACEMIsTH-DORRICN C-EN. IR ARCIHIBALD fUNTELR. FI[RST AIMY) (.t3ECONo ARMY) (THIRD ARMY) z – GEN.5IRLESLIE RUNDLE. GENSIR BRUCEIHAMILTON GEN., mIR IAN HAMILTON. (FIFTH AIMY) (SIXTH AU MY) (FoUrTH ARMY) DEVELOPING THE ORGANISATION OF THE BRITISH LAND FORCES BY CREATING ARMIES: THE COMMANDERS OF THE FIRST SIX ARMIES. A new Army Order announces the further development of the organisation of the Land Forces by the creation of Armies each ol which well consist generally of three Army Corps. Sir Douglas Haig, boan in 1861, has won hbgh praise from S.r John French during the wor. He had served under him mn South Africa, and under Earl Kitchener in the Soudan. General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien is fifty-six : was at Isandula, and did distinguashed service in Egypt, in the Soudan, min India, and rn the famous retirement from Mons. General S.r Arch.bald Hunter is an ex-Governor of Gibraltar, and has had a distinguished career in Egypt, India, and South Africa. He was born in 1856. General Sir Leshe Rundle. born in the same year, has a record of distmguished service, and was appointed Governor of Malta m 90o9. General Sir Bruce Hamilton, born In 1857, served with distinction in the Afghan War of 188o, mn South Africa, 1881 and t9oo, in Burnmah, Ashanti, and Benin. General Sir Ian Hamilton, born in 1853, fought in the Afghan Campaign of 1878-8o, the Boer War. Soudan Campaign, Burma Expedition, Tarah Expedstion, the South African War, and at the outbreak of the present war was appointed to the Command of the Home Army. -[Potooraphs by Las rvtt. Iarn,,ar. ai II. I.lt r I a rnett j

against a chain connllecting two floating mines, causing each in turn to explode on its starboard and port side successively, though the evidence in this respect was contradictory. Anyhow, this sinking of the Formidable, which belonged to a pre-Dreadnought type that has now been superseded, wa s as nothing to the loss of so many brave lives, numbering well on to 0oo, since out of a ship’s company of about 800 only 200 were brought to land. The number of rescued would have been greater lbut for the mountain seas running and the bitterly cold weather, to which several succumbed. Some landed at L me Regis, where nine out of fifty- seven men were found to be hdead from exposure, and seventy others at Brixham, to which they had been brought by the fishing-smack Provedent, whose skipper (Pillar) had manoeuvred it with a skill and daring worthy of one of the Elizabethan sailors of whom that south-western country was the cradle, as it continues to be the chief source of supply for the personnel of


our Navy. irPubilc sorrowv for the loss of so, Iany gallr.t lives was to some extent aisuaged by plurl at the thlougllt of the nmagnifiient bIhastll.r f (ptalin and trlew lhen faer cil th the i alimitv tht Ii had riertaken thelm lbelialtour shnh will ld.ae tlhe tI, of thie Foritrable ont the samlle level of glory isith the wrectk of the Blren,jr/hcad. While oilur heroic stil[rs were thus gatlirous yV mtin-n taiuing the traditions of their service amnrg liit:ntn’ Imountinoulis sea-;, their comrades of the Army y cwre equally giving an effective account of themselves among seas of Belgiant mud0. Christmantule brought with It to our trenches in Flandlers a siort of ” truce of G(;od ” by mtual irnIsent, accoImpanirld by sulch fraternising between opposing tIes as hail nesxr been seenl, perhaps, sincer Penilnsular days or tie siege of SeIbstipul. Bt aft rw ardts tIhe fighting went nri as briskly as ever with cnsults I n the whole, as un-

layu table to t n ” lH ches ‘ in ielgium ait- it hais been to them ill South – \tst Africa, where ai e hate re- occupiied ‘alftich iavt ts a preliminary to the wi- corporatii:g of the iat-,r’s tecrritorie i thereabouts with tihe Union, where co
nscnip- tion has, meanwhile, been introduced as a mrleans to this end; in addition to hoistilng the Britl-h flag over thu Solomum INland, of the Pacific, as soIme lttle return for the Im- peral patriotism of the Austrahlans who were dle- ptied to do the annexing jotb .Miircovel- two of our star sescsls, the battle -llp (;olth and the lightt t rtiser Fox. hav pa tpas iu the at lo our an ntill ; ton otlllf (, – man iEa-t .Afr itca ihy is – Itarding its ctaptal, l)ar-es- Salaa t, ahich will be It ry- unpleticaant news for i)r. tCarl Ptert , itlho claims to hli, been the founder of that colony, and has, in- deed, got a statue of himself set up there at the co,.t of soime of Iht admirers. While thus the dominion of the Gtermans iln East Atrica i- tottering to its ffil, tihe frtunce of tar, on the sthol’, has bteen de- ctiedly agaitst them all along the .Al Aid i in frot) the (‘hatntel to the Swiss frontier, but lmore par- ticularily in Upper Alsace, where the French capttured a position of sonic stta- tegical imtportancte alter a ie-k’s fluctuating -truggle –the village of Steinbach

near the Rhine, over against the historic ” Island of the Scots,” as sung by Aytoun, where the exiled cavaliers of ” I(nnie Dnll dc once gave the Germans such a lesson in the art of stornlung a position which had been thought to be impregnable. For a parallel to the fight for Steinhach, which ended by leaving the French in possession thereof, one must go back to the desperate encounter between the Bavarians and the French at Bazelles, on the day of Sedan. In the east, on the other hand, the war has been equally favourable to the Russians, who appear to have stalemated the (Germans on the ” four rivers ” tributary to the Vistula on its left side, and, indeed, brought about a result–as far as one can judge– similar to the repulse of the Germans from the Marne and the holding of them on the Aisne. The Austrians too, in Galicia, continue to incur heavy losses ; while the Russians are also begiininning to pour down illto tile plains of Htungary. Levous JtliA”i 5,. mso.

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Issue 3951. - Vol CXLVI

Jan, 09 1915

Illustrated London News