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President -Wilson, in his address to Congress, spoke with burning indignation of Germany’s “cruel and unmanly” submarine warfare. “The present German warfare against commerce,” he said, “is warfare against mankind. It is a war against all nations. . . . Submarines are in effect outlaws, when used as the German submarines have been used against shipping. It is impossible to defend ships against their attacks as the law of nations has assumed that merchantmen would defend themselves against privateers or cruisers, which are visible craft, when given chase upon the open sea. It is common prudence in such circumstances, of grim necessity indeed, to endeavour to destroy them before they have shown their own intention. They must be dealt with upon tight if dealt with at all.” After advising Congress to “accept the status of a belligerent,” President Wilson continued : “It will invodli the, immediate full atpment oCthe Navy in all respects, but particularly in supplying it with the
best means so dealing with the enemy’s submarines.” We illustrate above two types of American ships useful for submarine – chasg – destroyer and a smal high- power motor-boat with a gun mounted forward. The “Benham” is a 291-knot ship of 0olo tons displacement, carrying 98 men and armed with 4-inch quick – firers and three torpedo-tubes. The “Lynx” is a 4o-foot boat owned by Mr. Nat F. Ayer. She is here seen leaving Charlestown recently an her second run up the North Shore to promote enrolment of men and boats in the New England coast patrol. As regards American submarines, the new naval programme provides for 9 fleet sub- marines and 58 coast submarines. There are are now some 50o boats in service and 3! others under construction. Some, of over ioo tons, are said to have a speed of 20 knots .en the surface, and z knots submerged, and to carry to torpedo-tubes and some xz-pounderguns.