Home Archive Search Result With the Army Whose Normal Strength is 1, 800, 000: The Tsar

With the Army Whose Normal Strength is 1, 800, 000: The Tsar

ORIGINAL WEB VERSION
Close Comments

Leave a Comment

This 'web version' uses Optical Character Recognition (OCR), to interpret the original printed copy and convert it to computer-readable text. This technology can result in text errors.

N L· . r .· :1 l i ` `4


li Žf I (i$~ > 7 >’X.


x. WITH HIS DAUGHTERS, THE GRAND DUCHESSES OLGA AND TATIANA, IN THE UNIFORMS OF THE REGIMENTS OF WHICH THEY ARE THE CHIEFS: THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA AS SOLDIER. z. LUNCHING WITH FRENCH OFFICERS DURING MANOEUVRES OF HIS ARMY : THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA IN THE FIELD.


A few days ago it was reported from Russia that the Emperor had given his assent to the Bill providing a contingent of 585,000 recruits for g914, as passed by the Duma and the Imperial Council. Thus Russia’s first line of defence was brought up to a total of about r,8oo,ooo men; and the regular armies of the Great Powers stood as follows :-Russia, x,8oo,ooo ; Germany, 87o,ooo ; France, 74,00ooo ; Austria, 36o,ooo ;


Italy, 290,000; and Great Britain, 256,000. –The Grand Duchess Olga was born in November 1895, and is chief of the 3rd Regiment of Hussars of Elisabethgrad; the Grand Duchess Tatiana was born in May 1897, and is Chief of the 8th Regiment of Uhlans of Vosnessensk. The Tsar has two other daughters, the Grand Duchesses Marie and Anastasia, and one son, the Tsarevitch, who is ten years old this year.


tI iL .iý i’ii ‘ 1 “,I Iii .:! I- ii~ . I t .1 il~ I, iiý iim I’ ‘liii,-II _ý ý , Ii’- 11 ,1t ý it ~h · ·I: -I t,,t itttttttttt i it flit . -i i ýýý ýQ l Ih l-·I.: II:.;;i ! 1 ý. I I. .1 11 11 11111111 1 .(· i ¶11 I..1S1 III, 1,1.t “t ~u o 11 1.Iil .1 15i.11i I .1 Ii ‘1ii· -iii 111 ,,II: I iit tI i : I iho i iiitlt~ t2 Ian,11111: “1,11 u: Al· 11r , nlturo Ilu nn1h(I1 II I .,u . il i t fiit II I.I1II Iu ( I ýy 1(111.1.111 lu1ll1 Ill iuS 11 In’ýnlln lulu\. 1 ! 1. inna~~ L, 1111,1,001 I ul :11( 11.1111 . 1 )11 1 It1;· n ,n hr (I 1111111111 1, .11,0 Ill t llr ll 1111 III !’. bll, 1 ,:.,1 111:,( . \ 11 1111 .1111/ 1 ‘!1:111 · ( 1111, 1 1111. 1 111 11 uI 01’ ,. 11″ C 11511 IoM ,-II theI·l 11i I’I j t Ih: 111” 11 (.11. 11,11 I 1 11 01 Lilo ~ n111011 I1! 1)1! 11 111 1, 1’11 I.. 1(iil 111 .1 1 Illlll I )1r 1’1111 I I o I1.1, i s ‘ ‘ I 1III v 1111` 1 l 11 I I 1511


IN A DISTRICT FAMED FOR VINEYARDS AND FOR RICH ACCLIMATISED FLORA . THE PALACE AT ALUPKA, ON THE SOUTH COAST OF THE CRIMEA.


Russin icrill 1in ,till’ si5p1 tion of t s h]u also thbled in .tfle Ihii CCn the Searl Iw45 andli 1 11,ti’0 J 2+tOt).t)SO( to oVet ,)onot ool. I Jclc again p we nld i last export’ttion to 1″nglanl the crhef purl for Rlussian ecgs’lii b 11ig ull “Tum: Sit ac INIIsir’y Ialtf a century ago lsugar wsis so rare ill Rtusci~at .munl m’ist- quentlv so expcnsivc a luxury, that the poureir people tre- quently consulered one umnp of sugar enoulgh for sic or Ix cups Iof tea, al.lli in order to gett ithe full linefit of the sweetness, peasantsu used to 11put the solitary ptece between their teeth and pour the tea over it as they drank. Forty tears ago tihle lirst relinery was built in the privince of Tula (Central Russia, directly -: south of Moscow ), aild bv


1912 the Irea iunder beetroot had exceeded 2,000,000ooo acres. Not only has sugar thus conie within the reach oi the entire nation, but there is a consldcrableh yearly export to West .rn Europe, which would assnlllle tar greater dimen- sions were it lnt for the rsaialy of the other I xet-sugtr countries on the Continent, notablh


(,i11 ll I Au :n I un,. ‘ .n ý 11h’iu u. t ln i I 1 1111R. 11 · iII 1 11 t, 1 ·::n I Pt’t r. 1. )1( I lillS’llll iýd. llcllil ý il’ thus t a~r, withJ f(.\ ii.i 1(aIing I II l c ; 111 : l (·(1 11t(.t t 1 fit( cab age tnltII. Snuthcrcln Ku-llh~, Tans:11 (‘aucani~ild


A FACET OF ONE OF THE FINEST JEWELS IN THE TSAR’S CROWN THE CRIMEA A MOST PICTURESQUELY SITUATED TARTAR VILLAGE.


id!l li ntlttl-grtwItgi tile prorvitctes ofi Astrla- tlt andIl Sl tratinv prtidlucilig the shiest speei- n ti, Ir)ttg the last quarter of a centturv ri1-gravtug hlas assiitd vast proportions, ;tili iRussiat is thteerefre no longer as depleitlent ., site was upon Italia:n and Spanish Iruit. Ituring the ‘eritd in question, nurseries have lin rcatsed tein-tohl Apples can be grown as it Inorth as the province of VIolugdla, several hundred iules north of Mscimw Strawberries, raspubrries, gooseberries, etc , are grown chiefly tarnl the Iti-es of St. IPetersburg andll Moscow crttnb -rrlies alre a specialty of the province of Notvglorodt-, andl begant to appear regularly in the lEnglish market in 19) 2. The production itl hone and wax in RuIssia has reached the annualil value of , 2,ooo,ooo sterling. The richest


WITH SCULPTURED LIONS FLANKING IT: A STAIRWAY OF THE PALACE AT ALUPKA.


honey provinces in European Russia are those of Voronesh and Ufa, while still more honey is produced in the Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. No country has made greater use of agricultural machinery than Russia, except the United


Iintus >r.. i.e fro. the I nited States, er alllnl, ;reat i-ialln, arll on( of iO other ” iiuntrics. The first really modern foreign ili npkmentiilt, anlid miitchlines iimplll)rtd ci1ame from Elinglanl. lDuring the last third of the last century Russian farmers largely bought English ploughs, drills, threshers, and portable engines. The hlarvestintg miiachiinery has I)en furnished almost ntli.ely by America. In Iiln the total ilmlports of agriclltural machinery were valued at t,;31,700 ()ut of that total Germany’s share anmlntcd lo ýi,557,733; that of the United States, £1,200,170 ; England’s share hd s wasl 70s,7A 0; and .Austria I lungary’s, 500o 950 The total Russian production for the same period was valued at 5j,00,oooo, or a little more than the total imports from abroad. Included in Russia’s greatest natural resourcest are those vast forests which still cover such a large prioportion of the country. The total area is estiimatid at about 1,792,800,000 acres, of which 1,333,800,00oO are in Asia (exclusive of the (Cau’asus). iEutropean Russia has abolut 35j tlimber markets snot counllting Fiuland ai nd tj) the Catacasuis), those of St. Petersburg andi , lr”lonstadt each having returns aggregating u.


IN THAT PART OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA WHOSE NAME IS, PERHAPS, MOST FAMILIAR IN THIS COUNTRY : THE PALACE AT ALUPKA, IN THE CRIMEA.


50o,ooo,ooo, while those of Moscow and Riga each reach 2,5o00,ooo. In 1908 a total of 20,500,000 tons was carried by water, and 13,250,000 tons by railway. With a yearly 1 increase of 3,000,000 inhabit- ants, and, consequently, an mand for building materials, tile greater part of the tim- ber is now reserved for home markets. Russia’s greatest tlnlb2r customers are Great Britain (which takes three- quarters of the total export), (;ermany, tHolland, France, and Belgium. The number of saw-mill companies in 1901 was 22; in 1910 it was 43. Par- ticularly valuable kinds of trees are exported from the Caucasus to all European countries, and even to the United States. FURS. In large regions of the Rus- T


sian Empire the trapper and the fur mer- chant still reign as supremely as they do in Canada and did in the United States. . The best provinces for the trapper are now those of Vologda, Olonetz, Archangel, Perm, Viatka, and in Siberia all the land north of the great agricultural belt – that ýýý [co nanud on on VmI. .


-]··c u· in k.l~v Iru lIvi ,r t. In 0… ,.rt I(” e e tic ýl ii i ‘ I n t liii li (ii


1, m m ,n 1. 11 ”III< 1 1. 1 "' " ., - .1,)lell lh N , (11. 1),11, ,,',m '_I ,,I ',l ! . '1 N 1*I I Hlt it,ý, tý i i o .1.I i 111'I l 'i !P 11.1" ,, fl11' , l )) ll I v n C ll l n it iii ()9h. IhI Iiii Ii iii , SI . t I.i , in t , ill 1 s.h I.I 'l i' ) l i ,ii 1I 1 T li .lt Ii l ia ,l !L I ) Il I 1 I llit I I I Il 1 t il l 1 I I i 1 1 II I i t i lT ill I .iliih l ,lii . l liii h I i ii t ii.,h, i ; II) i . iL i l i itt iu i ]" i l - i , I ,s 11 il . I '< t n ll lilt , 1111. 1 , * lil ! 1h 0I l II ,ll ll!i v ,1 ' I ll I lIth ( (;l( L lledh "1


l ii cct iI c xc,,, c1. cccc lc 11 d> ;. 1 ,11 I111 1Ic cccc y II 1i, c c 1I’c X111 c1111e 111c 11111(1, ci 1
Il dci {,111 111i 11, cclx ,I, Ih I tu 11 11 1 1 r i l


i .111, I ,l w ill IB ‘ b 111 ii 1 1 ii I 1111111 ,11I CII1n Y~ “”””.””‘ II’.~ (nI ltAh ,.1 1111 i 11.Il I 11)11I i II S SI ,I III) 1- – I t ,11 .0 ! 11 . 11 11 II I li lt 1,111V” . 1 Ib d lit 1ý 1 111′ 1,111I I 1I1 (I 1 1J 1 111 1,111 111 SII li.i( 1t 1111 I I’ 111111 t((n I ll~ II Ip 1:1 I, 111. ,, l ,,, ·1 I 1 “11 ,11,, bu~.lt 11( SJ i~,llulC C ‘:1I1 ilil


u1lu I , 1 1 ill li I I l .1 l ii N III lW mO Si!,u a 1 IIIte b nthin e h ,I1i1x1. ,I1d II>-w oe o C.1-11 1 uQ . (1(11(1 111ly iurc 11 – )p(111-il. ·T(


* ig ot the l”‘ridni -Sii iiIaht tliilwiy. In 1i07 abiout 301 tun, .1 pure im l .erI IlIitI d :il ii Il) I ias muLckh us gi tns. Still I llus a lllflr- I nis!he ulln per cent . l th[ e gold ii It p u t l t 1 iii \;t i lr tl ( ,i i i I/ n l tlgl h slh b a. n I p ro g ress . I ii lilt It al st s t ,r ,t hun hed ic nd-lilty yc rs,. .lnd i SiltIii tor sextCln ” t l -xy In ti . i(1 the ,, toti of platinui l obtained 1i.n 11 1 I nearly al; l iris expo rted dircll-t to London anll( d PI t’ls. i( IThe RIussian 1 pper-xwtrks are ltuated partly in tih ‘I’.ral and patrtly in the (Caucasus. Siberian worwk are also beginning to produce i t bigger scale than herettolre. Rusi.1 produces a’realy almost all the copper shlie nieed. () zinc site is ot per uIent short of her needs; whilh lead is ltund ii still inaller tluaitltites In 1t12 the I ri l ix rks, ihich date lfrom the eighteenth cen-


tury, vl tic( ld Ilit I 0,,)( tons,,; the Cauca- s.clan, whith started a~ter 1857. g s5ome 00oo tn ; hlle lthe Siberlan works iurlished ,nly 400)1 tolts. Coal is found in the I)onetz basin in south- st luss:, in Russian Pol.d, ti’ (‘IC~anasu.


tn ter ). .I1 I . l .(- it I· ,,ri Ilnli inI the .Amurll InýI% nit c nt SIIX.-I·L. 😛 Hill t I.1′ \1t II 1 i 1IlIC 1, II l i rut lr .u I;Lu kS. L,)l tA. ‘I latter jilrtV It, hit lie- t~ A1~1r1 ,rihnlxtih cttal, ,Lndt


SET UP IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY IN A PLACE ONCE VERY FAMOUS FOR ITS LEARNING THE COLLEGE OF SHIR – DAR, AT SAMARKAND.


* ‘Xt(IPI th I vni tt uml th gt IH(t r s t it l lull- s! hi tine 11 .ullillLII Ite r ilicril t het’ wi ll 11 111r 111,11 cnnngll ]Ii I.I .li 1, 11 coal \ thi l- e Ilc lslaun


P— BUILT IN z64 : THE COLLEGE OF TILLA – KARI AT SAMARKAND, A CITY RENOWNED IN THE MIDDLE AGES AS A SEAT OF LEARNING. The word Etla ” means ” gold “; ” kar,’ ” to do. ‘


mpir)1r. NewV rTilvay lilet, whichi are be plianned, will also contribute greatly to the


SET UP IN THE SEVENTEENTI -ENTURY IN A PLACE ONCE FAMOUS FOR ITS LEARNING: THE INNER COURT OF THE COLLEGE OF SHIR- DAR.


dlcelopment of coal-mines, both in Western and Eastern Siberia. TrHE IRLSoaN ()IL PRODUCTION. Russian oil has thus far come exclusively from tic] Caucasus, andi o I b ‘cme one of the


E;mpire’s tlhicf sources of wealth. Locally speaking. it has made Baku the greatest city in the (auc,asus, andl trantsfrmedl Batsum into one of 1the chif scealsprt of the Black Sea ; it is now helping N Svrossiisk mi Cis-Caucasia to be what Batuon is to Trans-Caucasia. Finally, it has developed tremendously Anglo-Rtus-


ian tra(te relttions, and the con- stant attendlance of huge British tank-steamers at Batum is a potent evidence of the hearty economic co- operation of the world’s two largest limpires. Caucasian oil was first mentioned by the Arabs, who wrote about the ” sources ot Iaki.” In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries they were much used, and Marco, Polo gave very detailed accounts of them; but in the following cen- turies the fretquent changes of Gov-.s ernmlent greatly impeded further progress. After any long inter- rulptiols, ia moreII systematic exploit- ation began with the Russian iocru pation of the provitnce of Baku in 18o5. [The chief sources are those of Btbi – Elibat, Balachany, andil Sabuntchi (all near latku, in Trans- caiucasia). Petrofleum was at first a mono- i,) otf llth State. I and was alter-


natclv wov~rked by’ the Stateu or let oult to p~rivate Iindl1 iiii Is iii cu(‘,Icssi(Is. Thisi Jfl(T]Ep)() gave V tiit lirisirrv a searp’ atverage of /9)000. It was~ Ib,,ished(( lin i t1 __ all([ rep~laced’ ill anl Ex- ciseto o od.per ool ‘:4ý


(1 (00 CIIlu 5 40 I).). The Excise fees were levied for five years, lIand produlced a total sun of i131,580. After beillg abollshed for tenll years, the lee was re- established in 1888, in which year it enriched the Treasury to the extent of £7oo,ooo, and ill 1881) returned as . mulllch as i ,ooo,ooo00 L’p to 1872, petroleum i was obtained in the nmost primitive way, but since then the wells have been operated exclusivehl upon the American plan. Most of the pumping – machines used are furnished by , the famous firm of Nobel, 1and various English factories. Ilow ,i powerful solme of the wells are may be , gathered fronm the fol- lowing incident. In


1S83 wa taLpplY a well which sent up a foun- tain 3h0 iect high. ()wing to a lack of oi l reservoirs, this fountain, which t’7 worked thirty-five days continu-


ouslty, flooded the neighboourhood- 8,ooo,ooo kilogrammes being wasted daily. Another remarkable well of the Tagier firm produced 22,000,000 kilogrammes in a single day, or more than all American, Galician, Rumanian, and Burmese wells put together. The moere important wells vary in depth between 450 and 120zo feet. In 1899 the Govern- meat derived an Excise revenue of 1,200,ooooo; in 19oo, as mnuch as Lz2,ooo,ooo sterling. In Igoo a large amount of machine-oil wais also ex- ported, only 40 per cent. being used in Russia. In 19g0 the following quantities of petroleum were ex- ported from Baku: 5,15o,ooo tons, by sea to Astrakhan; 174,ooo tons to Batum; 20o8,500 tons by the Trans-Caucasian Railway; 21.500 tons by tlhe Vladikavkas Railway: 135,oo00 tons to diltfrent parts of


Trans – Caspia ; 3000 tons to Persia, and 112,500 tons elsewhere. Since 1902, Messrs. Nobel Brothers have sent petroleum, via Kerki, into Afghanistan. Several Russian war-ships of the Black Sea Fleet, especially the Rostislav, have used oil for fuel …. ~ ~ ·~ — w,~~,,,,, o..J.,.i· ·li [ … *o .. . . . ” . ::1. -r ” 2 t : “‘ ” ‘ . ‘


– n-Irpocs in IuI, St. Ictermburg ncd (il as hli ] tlro the(l t t (‘ ii 2o 0,f ii() ,lli kilo,) in I S(S 1to the extent tof I.4I oo0 0 kilos, l land in n1 to thei eis nt il s35,000,o0o kilos. In lloo2 h yill z 2~,14 new well: wire completed, while 501 wiln S ker’iuiP pii ll ,i ‘ul uu Iluron: the s : i tin (‘usluan S(a. e, r lh ku,. to ti’ lui k SaL p rt ,of Iiatlnm I’ll[, munl’rg.u, nd pipe. 5t1 miles In l ii ti l i:, is u i nrguil liyhIl ill ml k inll Iatuml the ] lumpul o oi 1 ilI t ‘k11 11( I LIniie Stikes ot n li i ,.I511(4 till iiIouri ii n IIii u , fiusi * tiji d j m er 5o pj r <. i It the wj ld'1 oil; d ur 'lg tit i . , t t hle , ie that prop, ,rtio n hal iti!! l to io phu ijt thl ' oil-) ihuictin reu al iiu itih ii init io iiviti i uis toins III n ll it W Lv , on0 ,Oo) illns. The I! ,L.ku oil- Sh'lis inter I ju'tt t -7 ;ii ( ires t ,ilies the i, the11 1i 1, .i rI l '('4 R Vai auII I " llltt ju 'd at b tween Iinn (i 2,I rtlll -o) DA In h i n th f t hall- Vt',t e Rorw to he u l o III t " ivitc "11di t tl al fhlus an opportunity is nltcring itself tor British


” i “‘I WHERE THE NATIVE WORKERS HAVE BEEN TAUGhT BY CHINESE ON A TEA-PLANTATION NEAR BATOUM.


enterprise In view of the diminutiotn o the ioutput of the Iaku wells in Trans u (‘casiia, a great deal of attention ha., been paid, especially during the last decade, to the vasriotus giroutps of is (iCaucasialln wells. Of these, tl toe los (;rozny and Mlaikp are the most interesttig (Grozn S 1oil is shipped either by the Vladikavras liailwiay to, Rostov, on the I)ona tc, d tht overland to S’ iulils parts ol Iiurpean and1 Asiatic Russia, i byh’ rail to iPetrossk, on the (‘aspian Sea,. aind thence by ship to Astrakhan, and Iby river barges up the Voiga and it, trilbutaries. In i tllli these new ells vieldd ,2oo00,000 tolls of I ‘1. The
wells on the island of Cheleken, in the (~sianl, hale llo givenl 20,o000 tons, andll are


SI onstailll- ilcreatsiig in i r ductivity. t present Mlik p S produlces annually about 1O0,000 tons of oil; but, with thu opening of the railway con necting it with the port ol Tuapse, on the Black Sea, the exports will undoubtedly im- crease very rapidly. The Cht- mion C(ompany’s wells in Tur- kestan yield only about 30,0o00 tolls annually, but other oil- fields are being examined at present both in (is – Catucasta and in Russian Central Asia. FISHERIES. IlRussia has vastly important fisheries in the Baltic Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Black Sea, the Azov Sea, the Cas ian Sea, the great rivers, with the Volga at their head, and in innumer- V able smaller rivers and lakes In Asiatic Russia-, the Pacific )Ocean, the inland Sea of Aral, I 1 and various lakes and rivers also furnish large quantities. SThe most important fisheries of all, and the oldest, are those of Astrakhan or the Volga- s~l~


C ispiti, \IlKhu ýea (IV mph 0,000 Llboats I ”l ovir 10,0o men Ion the C aspian Sea, tli il, aI Itt tC ti It 11111m n er are emcployeVd on Ctt ‘ol. t It’ll yearlI cattch ill this region it rage5 320o,(11 Cutons, ttihed att L3,000,000. Ih Ite h t ~tg~tt arc thte stutrgeon , carp, andt


ON THE BANKS OF EUROPE’S LARGEST RIVER: A VIEW BY THE VOLGA. D.Sr~n~a ai ‘ihnil’~


herring. The sturgeon 1funihl(es a great part of the wrhl-famedI Astrakhan caviare Although the advent of railways has greatly readlue(d the illllmber of fairs in Western ]:Iurole, Russian fairs are still extremely Inlportaint The molst famous are those of Niim-Nl vgorod and Irbit, in Siberia. The


SET BY THE SIDE OF THE VOLGA: A RUSSIAN COTTON – MILL Phý,ot.raph by DLrbroalSh~


former is of national value to Eurqpean, the latter to Asiatic Russia In all, Russia


-.- IN A VERY FAMOUS PRODUCING DISTRICT: AN OIL FIELD NEAR BAKU–IN THE FOREGROUND A LAKE FROM WHOSE SURFACE OIL IS SCOOPED UP IN BUCKETS. The Baku distrct covers the four chief fields of Balakhani, Saboutchi, Romani, and Bio-eybat, as well as Sourakhani, Binagadi, and Seiatoi.–Photograph by ” Sve. ‘] :…a.^ ;.b_ iK* i=ý-“” 1l V


has Io,ooo failr with a total turnover of loo,ooooooo. I o.M E INDUSTRIES. IHome industries, the so called Koustlarny work, coimpete very successfully with factories even nowadays, and furnish a subsidiary ivelivelihood to peasants whom climatic conditions would otherwise condemn to Inactivity from four to seven monllths ol the year. Fully I 4,oo0o,000 peasant men and wvomell are thus occupied. The work is largely in wood, and has bccn greatly stimulated and encouraged both by the Central, Provincial, alnd )lstrict (; cernll ents. These home-made goods are usually bought by middle-men, who sell them at local fairs. nder this heading we must not forget to mention the vast amoount of hone-work produced by women, such as laces, drawnl work, all sorts of elbroi- deries, carpets, and many fabrics of wool and silk. ()THER INDUSTRIES. The chief capitalist industries of Russia are the cotton industry, the woollen industry, the flax,


THE FERTILITY OF THE CAUCASUS: A CHARACTERISTIC VIEW OF AN ORANGE-PLANTATION. Phoheraph by l’r. k di~hn G;orskl.


jute, hemp, and silk industries. In 1Io10 Russia had 151 spinning-mills, with over 8,00o,ooo spindles and 145,000 operatives. In 1910, 50 per cent. of the cotton used was Russian-grown. The other, or imported half, is chiefly American cotton, re shipped to Russia from England. In 11)10 Russia had 359 mechanical weaving-mills, with 213,179 looms and 255,000 operatives Russian-made cotton goods are exported to the value of £2,500,000 sterling to Persia, Mongolia, and China. In 19o8 there were 1037 woollen enterprises, valued at £22,500,000 sterling, with a total of 1.42,049 operatives (88,009 men, 50,355 women, and 3025 children). It is interesting to note that from the times of Peter the Great down to about the


year 1525 – that is, (lown to the reign of Nicholas I.–Rus- sian mills worked chiefly for i the supply of the army, and only in ab:ut 186o began to ,”j work for the market. The chief woollen-industry provinces are those of Moscow, Tchernigov, ,, . Simbirsk, Tambov, the Baltic and Polish provinces. The finer materials are made in the Mos- “‘. cow industrial region. At pre- sent there are also 380,000 spindles in the Russian flax- t`’i mills, besides 41,000 twisting spindles engaged in thread- making. I There are ten jute -factories in Russia, with 45,000 spindles and about 2400 looms, employ- ing 10,638 operatives, and a pro- duction valued at /16,377,200. Nearly all Russian jute-factories are engaged in manufacturing sacks. Rope-making works were r first started at Kholmogry, near I Archangel, by the English, and received a great impetus dur- ing the reign of Peter the Great. During the last twenty [ ‘ O , _ .1-i


tI ‘t.tI * ( i i r< .1 u .June-, the Iii,,iiInii


J ýý..,. i I h ý·1 I I ý, I INi


I I I’i ,llk ItuhbbIt ( ]itip nV Ipa:ls a 1111 ii I l I1 ii 12 per ‘tI lt i. niitlhi tr Ii li i, Ivv is n! iiit.ii Isle 11iNll in isii iwis ‘2 Ni l i’.li I l li’ i h Ih it i iihint I ‘lit , pu, I 1 , Thh n 111i u1 1t ):1] SI ‘.. lrit b rill ,it It . til’ lieid ITiti 1th r st iay Ii ,I ,ll lt th i i i hlp(ro s It ‘ inrgl’l t aid il n l” ul de Ion itritly hai k elld Its (1W I ! I I, rt l aiiti o uiii i l t ii Zin e h I nl ld l , t l l, ‘ I . .1 . h I IAII I p o s i )bl o , . t lin i ti e I i nu ii Inn i t, sunnecti s iiiii til0 . “Itlal l o i l’: mpnre, St IP tersburg., anl ib I , h! A t ut 1 l, 1 ,,n t i. It w as oIp en .l ill It 1 I t s flst itp rtance hei s oii t n tl’ ins h’ig tct th It it I nnects tvt capt talut , ( lbut ath t. lt h Ii those ter i nal cit’s housest ,h- iit I si.s> i in . ‘ l it t. 1 t-titii”tiit. euv 5n t ig a. hugo put uhi’ the tt ith andl inte Iges t’t f I ui p i.is huit that ties, the liV s itiv Vienna Ib t iil y’ , ] pti’ll Is 1 i57 In t 1 So the St. [ ‘Ptetl m a4t \.ars .1 ailw-v was lhinaugurated, .unI Ir.u liltr fl:t th .1 Hu lian .apit.l were .tIlh’ 1r11 theit Il time tlo go) by rlail Irontll the urtlh of Iill’,i. t1 o W’cntern and1 (‘entral., lurpe 111n 1St. ; the II nla K l-<'nn-'.l)(it- k1 hnellI line yeas op1ned, an established the liI s "" Is 1.] .l I' fromlIn St i letersburg t6 hrough tlt whole south of Fi]ll utd t) Ih'll n the t inn1lsh < apital Ihring the stn Irlriod in-


C;i I. I l” b u I t1~ i. tine south It ii.ls Iualtiga. – II – l I I clit Ss ( IS tlitt, liv vvrst to ill-l .T an, .ý` hot IS i’,cI bura;,hart lkctr.


S1dr Ibla on the111 Olga; cast to Itiazan andr Vladimir respectively. Then followed lines from IKiev to Odessa and many cities of south- western and south-eastern Russia, and to other ” % .


u,jiit .nthe Germanl aTId ttI~triLTI Dater als, I 73. .maII ss the S mirim I.s [ahli nit l00C5 sett htigin. 111 88> it iii1


OPERA IN ST. PETERSBURG A SCENE FROM THE PRESENTATION OF TSCHAIKOVSKY S “EUGENE ONEGIN'” AT THE THEATRE OF MUSICAL DRAMA. l’i:,,t r,rtli Tt,I I,. ,r


continue]d all the WI to Htala, on the (‘aspiant Seia *t tl Iiegth feInn I 1ti rk Sea to, (aspllan Sea that is, Ititnum o Baku i o miles). IIn IS;4 a’n um-


A FAMOUS RUSSIAN DANCER WHO IS VERY WELL KNOWN IN LONDON : MME. TAMAR KARSAVINA. F., n- Ih I~, nl,, tm, bx .1,..qorm.


portanlt line was finished from Rostov on the I)on throtgh all Cis-Caucasia to Vladikavkas; in r189 this lile was continued via Petrovsk and Derbent,


OPERA IN ST. PETERSBURG : A SCENE FROM A PRODUCTION OF “CARMEN” AT THE THEATRE OF MUSICAL DRAMA Photograph by Flcher.


and joined the Trans-Caucasian main line near B3aku. In 1899 the Tiflis-Kars line was finished, in 1902 the Alexandrapol – Erivan line, and about I9o( the Erivan – Djulfa railway. By


I0 )I it wI.V p-osbl)le, therefore, to ra vcl by rail from St Pet
ersburg and Riga on the 1 Saltic, antd Arctiangel on the White Sea, via lIosxow, south to IRostov, lBaku, Tillis, ‘ Erivati, and the Persian frontier hear L)julla. The Central


Asian Hail- way, built Iby military rail- watbattallons, ý was begun 1 frIom the (as- pian sea-coiast ill 1877 ; I1 it l reached AXsk- hab od (capital ; of Trans-(as- pla, close to the Persian province of)I Ilhoirasan) bv 1882, Samar- kand (wherel Tamcrlane lies buried) by 1886, and Tashkent 13by 180 Its total length (largely


through deserts) is 1045 mil s, aondl it a’so passes through the vassal State (Emirate) of Bokhara. About the same time a branch line was opened from Merv to IKuskh (Afghan bIorder), and another from Tcherniaevo to .Andijan (near the Pamir region). In Eastern Russia, the railway had b,- 18 1 already crossed the I’rals and reached lTchiteliabinsk. Thence it twas continuedl (189199)o), via Omsk, to Irkutsk and Lake Balkal (Trans-Siberian Railway). By i9o3 railway conmmunllication was available from n~ St. Petersburg and Moscow, via Sib:eria and – Manchuria, to loadis ostok on the Pacific (cean, as well as to Mukden and Peking. J. Since January 19o06 the mails from Great Britain and all Western and Central Europe go through Russia, Siberia, and Manchuria to China, C(orea, and Japan. Travellers are thus able to get in ten and a half days from London to Peking, and in twelve and a half to fourteen ‘ days to Japan (respectively via Corea and Vladivostok). y At tile beginning of the present yeaim the total length of all Russian railways (including Finland) amounted to about 45,000 miles, or double the length of the ‘ railway system in the IUnited Kingdom.t Seventy per cent. of the railways are State railways, thirty p.r cent. belong to corn- panics. Among the companies the follow- ing paid the highest dividends in 1911: Vladikavkas Railway, 44 per cent. ; Mos- cow-Kazan, 311 per cent. ; hoscow-Kiev- Vronesh, 28- per cent.; Moscow-WVindau- Rybinsk, 11 per cent.; and the South- IEastern Railway, 9 per cent. ()THER IEVIDENCES OF JMATERIAL DEVELOI’PMENT. ‘ Among the


innumerable 1 ‘ other visible signs of the economic iom- provement of this progres- c sie country, pl it maybe men- tioned that the foreign trade of Rus- sia rose from £13,500,000 sterling in 1900 to over £250,000,000 in 191r ; Rus- sian manufac- tured goods have increased in value from L204,840,000 I


to £3o6,970,ooo–that is, by 44’5 per cent. The crops have increased by 33 per cent. since I89o; while deposits, both in State sav- ings-banks and in other banks, have doubled.



Close Comments

Leave a Comment

Browse this issue

You are on page 41 of 62

Issue 3924. - Vol CXLV

Jul, 04 1914

Illustrated London News